The Romans went on to loot the Antigonid camp, only to find that the Aetolians had beat them to it, in a possible foreshadowing of hostilities to come between Rome and the Aetolian league. His phalanx was not deployed in line, and were in a column to march, likely for speed of movement. Philip fled to Tempe, where he recovered as many survivors as he could. It may have been a single brigade of approximately 4,096 men, or some other partial unit. The exact composition of this force isn't clear, but Polybius indicates that at least some of the troops were Aetolian. Before advancing, he left orders for Nicanor to join him as soon as possible. This extra help turned the tide and forced the Romans back down the hill, nearly to their camp. Once he was sure the battle was lost, he escaped. 12.) How did the war start? The shield was heavy, around twenty pounds, and roughly two and a half feet wide by four feet long. The Antigonids are frequently referred to as “Macedonians” and sometimes just as “Greeks.” Those descriptors are accurate. Battle of Cynoscephalae: decisive battle during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE), in which the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcame the Macedonian king Philip V. Philip V of Macedon. Philip V  was the Great-Great-Great-Grandson of Alexander’s famous general Antigonus I Monopthalmus (Antigonus the One-Eyed), the founder of the Antigonid dynasty. The battle of Cynoscephalae was a turning point in military history. The countryside shifted gradually, more hostile to the Antigonids, more friendly to Rome. We received a warm welcome from the Mayor of Fasala, the closest city to the battlefield. It matches Plutarch's assessment that Flamininus had over 26,000 soldiers, and that the opposing forces were roughly the same size. The consul Publius Sulpicius Galba had fought without distinction in the First Macedonian War, and continued his lackluster performance in the second. 11.) He then ordered his force to lower their pikes and charge. Unfortunately, Neither Antias nor Claudius' original annals survive in anything or than fragmentary-referential form. 9.) The Antigonid phalangites likely wore a complete panoply of approximately forty pounds, including bronze helmet and greaves and a linothorax (linen cuirass) and bore the pelte, a shield approximately two feet in diameter and slightly concave, without an offset rim. Between them lay a ridge of low hills named "Dog-Heads," in Greek—Cynoscephalae. The Battle of Cynoscephalae, fought in 197 B.C., ended the second of Rome’s four Macedonian Wars, securing a place in history for the Roman consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, checking the power of the Antigonid King Philip V, and imposing a brutal peace that laid the groundwork for the Third Macedonian War against Philip’s son Perseus. Phalangites would deploy sixteen men deep. Galba was replaced by Publius Villius Tappulus, who managed to do even worse, with 2,000 veterans of the Second Punic War under his command mutinying. You take the role of the Roman army as it moves to defeat the Macedonian army of King Philip V of Macedon. We also know that legions of this period (including the alae "wings" of the socii) had around 300 cavalry attached to them, which would give a grand total of 28,000 infantry and 1,600 cavalry – 29,600 men. Livy definitively states the number of captives at 5,000, while Polybius says it was not less than 5,000. A year after the Peace of Phoenice, the Successor King Ptolemy IV Philopator (father-loving) died, leaving his six year old son Ptolemy V to succeed him. An additional 800 infantry joined the Romans from Crete. Cynoscephalae (Ancient Greek: Κυνὸς κεφαλαί, meaning "dog's heads") may refer to: . Dr Alexander Meeus and Karl Soundy must be thanked for their help in preparing this. Many historians ignore the writings of the 12th C. Byzantine writer Joannes Zonaras, arguing that he writes too far from the event to be considered a primary source. Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos. 7.) Flamininus quickly defeated Philip at the Aous River Gorge, by means of a flanking maneuver. 7/8000 gesneuvelden en 4/5000 gevangenen. Philip then sent a small force to take the Cynoscephalae hills (coordinates: 39º25'N, 22º34'E). The Romans also fielded twenty war elephants, with their attendant crews. Phase I. Illustrating. The next few years were one of constant tension between the Antigonids and Rome, as Philip continued to try to expand his reach in Greece and Asia Minor, bringing him into running conflicts with the powerful states of Pergamum and Rhodes. Philip, encouraged by reports that the Romans were on the run, committed what he had of his phalanx—approximately 50% or 8,000 phalangites (including the peltasts)—as the other half under his officer Nicanor were out foraging. Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce ), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. The three lines would be deployed in ten staggered maniples (handfuls), with a maniple-wide gap between each one. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Cynoscephalae was the first battle in the campaign of Roman imperialism against Macedonia and the eastern Mediterranean. The first two lines would have been armed with 2 javelins each and the short sword. The Battle of Cynoscephalae is a battle that took place in 197 BC. The combat engaged about 26,000 men on each side. The Antigonids would ideally deploy their phalanx in four strategia (brigades) in a line, with the most veteran units to the right (likely the peltasts). Reinforced, the Romans drive the Antigonids up the hill, until they're forced to the crest. The Romans would have deployed their troops in a triplex acies of three lines—the hastati (green/young men), the principes (more veteran troops), and finally the triarii (hardened veterans). The Cretan troops were almost certainly archers. Cynoscephalae is de naam voor een heuvelrug in Thessalië.Deze heuvelrug had zeer hoge toppen, wat erg in het voordeel was voor de Romeinen, aangezien zij in een veel flexibelere formatie vochten dan … 1. The sources give the following evolution of the battle, in this order: 1.) The Roman legionaries also wore a complete panoply. Attitudes quickly soured, however, when Rome occupied "the Fetters of Greece," three pivotal fortresses at Corinth, Chalcis and Demetrias. Flamininus, still unaware of Philip's location, sent out some cavalry and light infantry to reconnoiter, which engaged Philip's troops on the hills. We got to spend the day seeing the ancient city of Dion, where Alexander the Great sacrificed before launching on his expedition into Asia, and we also toured the battlefield of Cynoscephalae, which is one of the battles covered in Legion vs. Phalanx. Marching blind, Philip sent light troops out to reconnoiter from high ground, at precisely the same time Flamininus sent out "ten squadrons of horse and about a thousand light-armed infantry" (Polybius) with the same purpose. Normally, the left hand projected past the shield rim, allowing the phalangite to wield the pike with both hands. NOTE: Livy says they dropped their pikes and charged with swords, and is widely believed to have mistranslated Polybius. They fled at first contact with the elephants. Cynoscephalae synonyms, Cynoscephalae pronunciation, Cynoscephalae translation, English dictionary definition of Cynoscephalae. Exaggerates the casualties at 32,000 killed and 4,300 captured Greeks sent 1,200 infantry in... Silver or Gold Osprey member to comment on this post required to relinquish his conquests in the first of. Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, who also exaggerates the casualties at 32,000 killed and 5,000.... 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